A – Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil.
A-DNA – A right handed DNA double helix that has 11 base pairs per turn.
Artificial Insemination – AI – is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female’s uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse. It is a fertility treatment for humans, and is a common practice in animal breeding, including dairy cattle (see Frozen bovine semen) and pigs.
is the process of collecting sperm cells from a male animal and manually depositing them into the reproductive tract of a female.
Agrobacterium – A genus of bacteria that includes several plant pathogenic species, causing tumour-like symptoms.
AMP – adenosine monophosphate
ATP – adenosine triphosphate
ATP-ase – ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion. This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy, which the enzyme harnesses to drive other chemical reactions that would not otherwise occur.